All you wanted to know about potato

Solanum tuberosum L.

Potato is the edible starchy tuber of a cultivated plant, Solanum tuberosum, which is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. It’s eaten by more than 1 billion people worldwide.

How Many Species of Potatoes Worldwide?

Potato is a member of tomato or eggplant family, Solanaceae. The species is indigenous to the Andes region (Peru, Bolivia, Equador, Chile, and Colombia) where some closely related species are cultivated. In total there are about eight or nine cultivated potato species, but the major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes).

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Following centuries of selective breeding there are now over 5000 different cultivars of potatoes worldwide, 3000 in the Andes region alone.

Potatoes can be divided into four major Cultivar Groups, namely, the Russets, reds, whites and yellows (also called Yukons). The part of the plant used is the swollen underground stem known as the tuber. It stores surplus carbohydrates to feed the leafy green areas of the plant.

Production of Potatoes

Potato is a cool season crop so tuber formation stops at 27°C (81°F). China is the largest producer of potatoes. Genetically modified varieties of potatoes have met public resistance in the USA and European Union.

Who Eats Potatoes?

Potatoes were first introduced out of Andes more than 4 centuries ago and have since become an integral part of the worlds food supply. It’s the fourth largest food crop after maize, wheat and rice. 2/3 of global production is eaten by humans and the rest is fed to animals or used to produce starch.

More than a billion people worldwide eat potato. China is the largest consumer of potatoes. Potato remains an important crop in eastern and Central Europe with the highest per capita production. Americans consume 57kg (126Ib) potatoes per person per year on average. Potato the leading source of vitamin C in the American diet.


Nutritional value per 100g (3.5oz): 77kcal and 15% starch. The notable minerals as per RDA are vitamin B6 23%, vitamin C (24%), potassium 9%, phosphorus 8%

Use of Potatoes

As mentioned before, 2/3 of global production is eaten by humans and the rest is fed to animals or used to produce starch.

65% of America’s potatoes are sold in various convenience forms like fries and hash browns with lots of added salt and fat.

Canned potatoes: are nutritional but may contain more than 400mg of sodium per cup as compared to freshly cooked that has only 6mg sodium per cup.

Toxicity in Potatoes

All green parts of the potato plant except the tubers contain the toxic alkaloid solanine, and are unsuitable for consumption. Solanine is also found in the green parts of the eggplant and tomato, plants.

Potato Fruits

Potato produces small green fruits, the size of cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. Potato fruit is not edible.

How to Store Potatoes

Household storage: store potatoes at 7-20°C (45-50°F), preferably in a dark well ventilated area.They will keep for several weeks.

Please do not keep potatoes in the Fridge. Temperatures below 4°C (39ºF) converts potato starch into sugar which alters taste and cooking quality.

Commercially grown potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin set then then stored in a cold dark, well ventilated area with temperatures of about 4°C(39°F) and controlled humidity.

Important Tip: if potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, these areas should be trimmed before using the potato. Remember we discussed that green parts of the potato plant contain toxic alkaloids known as solanine.

Wild Species of Potatoes

There are about 200 wild species and sub-species many of which can be cross bred with the cultivated varieties. Last Updated: July 10, 2019

Author: Liz

I love everything food: eating, cooking, baking and travelling. I also love photography and nature.

3 thoughts

  1. Hi Liz! What a great post! I love potatoes! They are mainly a staple in my house. So versatile! I was surprised to read that China leads the world in potato consumption! A question….is the potato considered to be a vegetable? I try to follow the diabetic exchange program for meals….try being the operative word, and it is always listed as a carbohydrate, not in the vegetable section. I really like sweet potatoes which are apparently also rich in carbs but are they classed as a vegetable? Conundrums!!! I am going to send you a private message on Yahoo…regarding turmeric ryzomes. It’s a beautiful blue sky this morning here, the early days of autumn….sure can feel it in the air, but it’s nice! Have a great day!

    1. I have just made your spinach dip and had a huge chicken sandwich with it. I am licking it all over the place. Tastes really good.
      Ideally potato should be classified as a carbohydrate along with rice and other staples like maize and cassava.
      “A food staple is a food that makes up the dominant part of a population’s diet. Food staples are eaten regularly—even daily—and supply a major proportion of a person’s energy and nutritional needs.
      Cassava, maize, plantains, potatoes, rice, sorghum, soybeans, sweet potatoes, wheat, and yams are some of the leading food crops around the world”
      Botanically tomatoes are classified as fruits but can be classed as vegetables because they do not have a hefty amount of starch.
      Waiting for the yahoo message. Will post the spinach dip tomorrow. Have a lovely day!

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